Phobias refer to the unreasonable fear in specific situations or from specific things. The symptoms of phobias are the same as those in the panic disorder. When a person has a panic attack in a particular situation which leads to a long lasting avoidance of that situation, he may have developed phobia from it. They may never have any panic attacks in that situation again but they would still not face it. The person is aware that the fear is completely irrational but is still not able to free from it. Such fears can interfere with work, school, and personal relationships. The various types of phobia are social phobia; in which the person fears going out to social gatherings, agoraphobia is fear of open places from which it is difficult to escape, and claustrophobia is fear of closed spaces. Pyrophobia implies the fear of fire, hydrophobia is fear of water, fear of birds, insects, etc.
The most common signs and symptoms of phobias are the same as those in panic disorder. These are following:
The causes of phobias could be genetic and environmental. Some individuals are more vulnerable to anxiety disorders and therefore are at higher risk of developing phobias due to increased activity in their sympathetic nervous system. The ongoing stressful events and repeated exposure to anxiety causing situations may also lead to development of phobias. Substance abuse and other long standing psychiatric illnesses may also cause phobias. .
There are various pharmacological treatments and therapies that can help in the treatment and management of phobias. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Behavior Therapy, Exposure therapy, Insight oriented Therapy can be used to help individuals to deal with their phobias. All of these are done under the supervision of mental health professionals such as Psychiatrist and Clinical Psychologists at Nirvan Hospital, Nirvan Bhawan, Kalyanpur, Ring Road, Lucknow.