Dementia is not a specific disease but is rather a general term for the impaired ability to remember, think, or make decisions that interferes with doing everyday activities. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia. Though dementia mostly affects older adults, it is not a part of normal aging.
Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells. This damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other. When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behavior and feelings can be affected.
The brain has many distinct regions, each of which is responsible for different functions (for example, memory, judgment and movement). When cells in a particular region are damaged, that region cannot carry out its functions normally.
Dementia is caused by damage to the brain. There are many causes of dementia. The causes of dementia can be generally grouped as follows:
Early symptoms of dementia include :
Signs that dementia is getting worse include:
The symptoms mentioned above are general symptoms of dementia. Each person diagnosed with dementia has different symptoms, depending on what area of the brain is damaged. Additional symptoms and/or unique symptoms occur with specific types of dementia.
The management of dementia discusses the needs of people in both the early and later stages of dementia, focusing on social and environmental aspects as well as physical and psychological. The main management tasks in early dementia are helping the person with dementia and their family come to terms with the diagnosis, optimising quality of life in the present, and planning for the future. In later dementia we deal with maintaining person-hood, the emergence of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, making decisions for a person who no longer has capacity to do so for themselves, and end of life care in people who are increasingly frail and have limited ability to communicate their needs. Underpinning all of these is the need for respect and communication, and to provide person-centred and relationship-centred care for people with dementia and their carers.
Team of Psychiatrists and Clinical Psychologists at Nirvan Hospital are expert in management of Dementia. Nirvan Hospital has India’s First Department of Geriatric Mental Health in Pvt. Sector in India.