Intellectual disability involves problems with general mental abilities that affect functioning in two areas:
The condition is further divided into four levels of retardation based on IQ, which include mild mental retardation (IQ between 50-55 and 70), moderate mental retardation (IQ between 35-40 and 50-55), severe mental retardation (IQ between 20-25 and 35-40), and profound mental retardation (IQ below 20 or 25) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
There are many signs of intellectual disability. For example, children with intellectual disability may:
Some mental health, neurodevelopmental, medical and physical conditions frequently co-occur in individuals with intellectual disability, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, ADHD, autism spectrum disorder and depression and anxiety disorders.
Although there are no medications in most cases of ID, appropriate genetic diagnosis, parent counselling about rehabilitation, acceptance of diagnosis and adjustment of expectation is needed.
Various therapeutic services can improve a person’s adaptive behavioral skills. These therapies are helpful for many people with intellectual disabilities (ID, formerly mental retardation).
Social Skills training